Is pitch velocity an indicator of a good pitcher?

Over this past summer, the Twins struck a deal with the Boston Red Sox to send specialist Fernando Abad to Boston for prospect Pat Light. Light, 25, first pitched in the majors in 2016, where in two innings with the Red Sox, he had allowed 8 runs (7 earned). After the deal, he has spent the rest of the season with the Twinkies. His numbers do not look much better, with an ERA of 10.22 in 12.1 innings pitched. Over his minor-league career, he has posted a 4.35 ERA in five seasons. Why did the Twins want this guy? He was 25, fully established as a reliever, and has only dominated the minors in 2016.

One of my theories is that the Twins saw that Light is a flame-thrower. Recently, he hit 101 miles per hour on a pitch. Are the Twins fixated on his high velocity? Looking at the Twins’ bullpen, another below-average pitcher, Ryan Pressly, is also touted for his high velocity.

I am not saying definitively that the Twins are focusing on pitchers’ velocities to value prospects and players; previously I wrote about how teams have focused on batters’ exit velocities, so perhaps the Twins have tried to apply this mentality toward pitchers.

Either way, I decided to delve into this topic, seeing if a pitcher’s velocity indicates a lower ERA, FIP, and BABIP, or a higher strikeout rate and walk rate. Using MLB’s Statcast, I was able to parse their data to record a pitcher’s average velocity. Using these data, I tried to establish the skill set of a flame-thrower.

To do this, I performed linear regressions between these different factors, seeing if any of these values are highly related to or influenced by faster pitching.

First, I looked at FIP and velocity. Below are the results:

Not a strong relationship, yielding an R-squared of 0.09. This relationship does show that as velocity increases, FIP tends to decrease, but again, not a very convincing relationship.

Next, I looked at ERA and velocity:

It yielded a similar result, a weak negative relationship, if any.

While the results for ERA and FIP were disappointing, I figured BABIP might look better. If a pitcher can throw faster, it would make sense that the batter would have a tougher time making contact, leading to weaker contact and a lower BABIP. Did the results agree? Have a look:

Disappointing. No relationship at all.

On to strikeout rate and walk rate.

I immediately thought of Aroldis Chapman. He has the fastest heater in the league, and his strikeout rate is above 40%, nearing the top of the league. I was much more optimistic for these metrics.

Here is velocity to strikeout rate:

Not a great relationship, yielding an r-squared of .13. It is a little stronger than anything else we have seen, but that is not saying much at all.

Finally, here is velocity and walk rate:

Not much going on here as well.

What does this all mean? Well, for starters, it shows that there are other factors that determine how effective a pitcher is. These data show that these metrics are not the end-all-be-all of a pitcher’s skill. Velocity is not a key indicator of an effective pitcher. Sure, the fastball probably needs to be upward of 85 miles an hour, but speed is not the most important factor. Rather, other skills, such as control, deception, and quality of breaking pitches might be just as important, if not more important, than velocity.

I don’t know if the Twins specifically targeted Light because of his velocity, but in his stint with the Twins, he’s averaged 10.9 walks per 9 innings. What good does his speedy fastball do if he cannot get it over the plate?

After my analysis, I’ll admit I’m a little surprised. I would think a higher velocity would mean a higher strikeout rate. But I am wrong. I guess for every flame-throwing Aroldis Chapman, there is an equally effective Andrew Miller, who does not posses the 105 mile-an-hour heater, but has a higher strikeout rate.